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Constructing for efficiency is among the facets of app, and we have now it coated on this e-book. Chapter 1, Understanding Gradle, teaches builders methods to put together Android Studio and its parts for improvement. The builders will use Android Nougat 7. Chapter 2, Exploring Android Studio Developer Instruments, explains that through the years, Android Studio has acquired a variety of productiveness updates.

This chapter highlights how in-house instruments will get one of the best of productiveness whereas constructing restaurant discovery app options. Utilizing help libraries will present backward compatibility with the earlier variations, offering some helpful UI factor help. Chapter 5, Materials Design, explains that materials design is nearly over two years previous now.

Understanding design ideas and implementing them in the important thing options of the restaurant discovery app are coated on this chapter. This requires a powerful structure plan out. Chapter 8, Choice making, focuses on which is the event structure adopted whereas creating a meals discovery app and reasoning for a similar.

After studying these subjects, you understood what are the parts required to develop sure sections on a display screen. When you come up with these parts, they are often reused in different screens with related necessities.

Chapter 11, Backend Service, seems to be on the improvement life cycle as having three totally different phases: improvement, testing, and distribution.

Sometimes you may have come across apps that prompt you to update Google Play Services before proceeding. The service performs the desired action on your behalf. Also, to include a specific dependency for your app, proceed to add specific services in your app’s build Gradle. The various services provided by Google Play Services could be included in an Android app using a Gradle path in the app’s build. The default password for the debug keystore is android.

Post this, you will able to see the fingerprint displayed onto the terminal. To make this possible, you need to register your Android app with the Google Cloud Console by providing your app’s package name and the SHA1 fingerprint of the keystore, using which you will sign the release APK. To register your Android app with Google Cloud Console, follow these simple steps: 1. Click on Create project and enter the project name.

Click Create. This will create a new project in your Google Developer Console. Since we have created the project, we will now enable the APIs that are required for the project. To enable the APIs, click on the library tab. Here you will see the list of all APIs that can be added to the app. First go to the library tab in the Google developer console. Next go to the Credentials. Here we will be creating an OAuth credential for the app so that the user can log in from the Android app.

Before we create a new credential, we have to fill in OAuth details of the app: [ 46 ] Google Play Services 4. After all of these details have been filled, go to the Credentials tab and click on Create credential: [ 47 ] Google Play Services 5.

In our case, it is an Android app, so we would select Android: 6. Then you will see an option to add the app’s package name and signingcertificate fingerprint. Here you will see an option to select an app and enter the package name.

Fill in the details and click on Choose and configure services: [ 49 ] Google Play Services 9. At this screen, enable Google Sign In and enter the signing-certificate fingerprint. Then click on Generate configuration file: [ 50 ] Google Play Services You can now download the google-services. Now, add the dependency to your project-level build. Also, add this plugin in your app-level build. Finally, add the dependency into your app-level Gradle: Compile com.

We have now completed the setup for Google Play Services for this app. In the next section we will discuss the Android Architecture we would follow, along with discussion on the UI patterns for this app. After saving the API key, use the key in your app. Now in your app, add the dependency in your app’s build.

Save the file. After adding, save the AndroidManifest. Next, we discussed Google Sign up, followed by Google Maps. Google has set design principles as guidelines to help developers work with material design for their apps.

This principle sets up visual cues, motion, and interaction design across platforms and devices, making it a unified design belief. In this section, we will cover how to incorporate material design into your app. Wireframing and tools to gather feedback Wireframing is a technique to plan out the high-level screen hierarchy for your application and display the forms that would be present in your app by providing some mode of navigation, to allow users to effectively traverse your app flow.

Some apps have wireframes expressed in a tree structure, a graph, or a flowchart. The methods of wireframing could vary based on the type and magnitude of the app, but the standard patterns of wireframing remain the same. Also, there are varieties of tools that could be used across different types of apps and different kinds of information that represent the types of things users interact with in your app.

Software engineers and data architects often use entity-relationship diagrams ERDs to describe an application’s information model. We will understand and learn the various techniques of wireframing in detail in this chapter.

Material Design Understanding the wireframing process tangible and digital Before understanding the actual wireframing process, it will be nice to gather some initial information about things that would help draw some effective wireframes. Once you understand what your app will do, the first step is to list the screens present on the app step by step. Doing this will give you a clear idea about the basic outline of the wireframing screens required.

Wireframing is the step in a design process where screens are laid out creatively, by arranging the UI elements to allow users to navigate through your app. These wireframing screens need not be same as the final UI for the app. They could be somewhat rough wireframes, which would give you an idea of what elements would be present on a screen.

The easiest and fastest way to get started is to sketch out your screens by hand using paper and pencils. Once you begin sketching, you may uncover practicality issues in your original screen map or the patterns you use.

In some cases, patterns may apply well to a given design problem in theory, but in practice they may break down and cause visual clutter or interactional issues for example, if there are two rows of tabs on the screen. If that happens, explore other navigational patterns, or variations on chosen patterns, to arrive at a more optimal set of sketches.

After you’re satisfied with the initial sketches, it’s a good idea to move on to digital wireframing, using software such as Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Fireworks, OmniGraffle, or any other vector illustration tools.

When choosing a tool to use, consider the following features: Material UI for Android developers Material design for Android includes implementation of visual, motion, and interactive designs for your app on different devices. Android now includes support for material design apps.

To use material design in your Android apps, follow the guidelines defined in the material design specification and use the new components and functionality available in Android 5. The Android library provides many components for giving a material experience to the user. We will explain some of the components provided in the Android library in this section.

They are distinguished by a circled icon floating above the UI and have special motion behaviors related to morphing, launching, and the transferring anchor point.

Floating action buttons come in two sizes: the default and mini. The size can be controlled with the FABSize attribute. As this class descends from ImageView, you can control the icon that is displayed via setImageDrawable Drawable. The background color of this view defaults to your theme’s colorAccent. The FAB could be used to carry out different kinds of transitions on click. The following are a few images that show the different places where the FAB could be used: [ 58 ] Material Design Figure 1.

Consider the restaurant details screen where we have a FAB button present, as follows; the button can be used at various different places: Figure 1. Clicking on the button opens up the bottom menu and shows us the various options. Here, the transition from the FAB button to the bottom menu forms the major chunk of its material aspect. The following is the complete transition showing how the FAB gets converted to the bottom menu: Figure 1. Firstly, make sure that you have added the gradle dependency in your app’s build.

The next step is to import and initialize it in your Java class: import android. FloatingActionButton; If you are using Android Studio, the import will be handled automatically, and you don’t have to worry about it. The code for the on click of the FAB is mentioned below. Refer to PlaceDetailActivity. Also, we need to close the bottom menu when clicking anywhere outside.

Clicking on the search icon will produce a ripple effect, which helps a user to get a better experience: Figure 1. When this screen opens up, there is a smooth transition that takes place as each of the components appears on the screen. The search icon first opens up smoothly to form the toolbar: Figure 1. The in-between transition when the search icon opens up smoothly [ 70 ] Material Design The search icon’s in-between transition shows that the ripple wave grows gradually until it completely covers the toolbar: Figure 1.

The search icon completely opens up to form the toolbar [ 71 ] Material Design Once the search icon translates to form the toolbar, the EditText translates down from the top to the bottom and the quick search options simultaneously translate up, creating a smooth transition effect: Figure 1.

The Search icon completely opens up to form the toolbar [ 72 ] Material Design The XML layout of the search view is shown in the following code: [ 73 ] Material Design [ 74 ] Material Design The major components on this screen are the EditText, for typing the text for searching. Another important component is the RecyclerView, which displays the list of all the details. Here, we are concerned more about the way the UX for the search gives a smooth experience to a user.

The view being passed to the method as a parameter is the searchViewLayout, which means that it makes the search view visible. Then it adds the animation to that particular search view layout. Then, the animation is started using the start method. The following is the explanation of the showBottom method inside the enterViews method: private void showBottom View view, Animator. This animation will have a listener, which will let you know when the animation starts and when it ends.

The exitViews method will be called when the search view has to be closed. Android library provides many ways and built-in libraries for building a good UX.

Besides these, you need to build your own UX patterns depending on the flow of your app. To build a good UX, you need to use animations in the right places. Understanding UX principles and how it’s different from UI The user experience is very important for keeping a user engaged with the app by making them understand what is happening on the screen.

Here is another simple material aspect of UX, where a user gets a very good experience when they click on view on the screen; the UX shows a ripple effect when the user clicks on the view: [ 77 ] Material Design Figure 3. The ripple is high at the point of contact and gradually decreases its force.

Firstly, a user should know when they click on a button and should not have a doubt whether they have clicked or not. Having this effect gives a user a very good experience when they click on a button. We will use the CardView as the outermost clickable view. We need to set a drawable for the inset. At this point, the following shape is seen in the view: It gives a color to the view, which is set is the colors.

Only when these two conditions are satisfied, is the shape drawn: shape as defined here is a rectangle, as the CardView is a rectangle with rounded corners.

For Android versions later than v21, the ripple effect is built-in: [ 80 ] Material Design Here, the ripple is a built-in class, which defines the ripple effect. It needs to set a drawable and a color. The ripple color is the same one defined earlier. Summary Material design plays an important part in how a user is able to use an app easily, and hence it makes sure that they use the app more often. In this chapter, we covered material design and followed with the material design animation.

We then processed this animation to build animation in the app. In the next section, we will cover building the core features of the foodspotting app. The idea behind this principle is to design a class that has one responsibility or various methods with unique functionality. According to this principle, a method should not do more than one task at a time.

Each function must be designated a unique task. It does not satisfy the single responsibility principle, as we are formatting the values as we are setting the text to the views. The onBindViewHolder of the recyclerView adapter is mainly responsible for binding the view with the values of its object class.

In the preceding code, the onBindViewHolder is doing more tasks than it should. If we have kept the same format in more than one place and there comes a need to make changes to the format, then we will have to make the changes everywhere and this may result in software logic duplication issues. If we don’t update the code in some places, it may cause an error. If the code was a logical change that had been replicated, the entire flow of the app would change.

To prevent this, we have to write the code in a way that we don’t have to make many changes if the features are changed. Due to this, the change of the functionality or format can be done in the common function instead of each instance of the code. Open-Closed Principle The Open-Closed Principle states that: Software entities classes, modules, functions, etc should be open for extension, but closed for modification.

This principle basically states that we have to design our modules, classes, and functions in a way that when a new functionality is needed, we should not modify our existing code but rather write new code that will be used by existing code Now let us discuss the Open-Closed Principle in the following example.

Let us assume we are trying to calculate the area of some shapes. So let’s take the example of a rectangle and a circle. The same shape interface can be now used in new classes to calculate the area without changing the AreaManager. Liskov Substitution Principle The Liskov Substitution Principle states that: Child classes should never break the parent class’ type definitions.

According to this principle, a subclass should override the parent class’s methods in a way that does not break functionality from a client’s point of view. According to this principle, if a class is extending another class, the functionality of the child class should not conflict with that of its parent. As we know, a square is also a type of rectangle, so it can extend the Rectangle class.

An ArrayList implements a List but it does not change the basic functionality of the List. Interface Segregation Principle The Interface Segregation Principle states that: No client should be forced to depend on methods it does not use. According to this principle, if an interface has too many methods, then we need to divide the interface into smaller interfaces with fewer methods. A simple example of this principle is shown next. This violates the Interface Segregation Principle.

Here we have segregated them into two different interfaces. High-level modules should not depend on low-level modules. Both should depend on abstractions. Abstractions should not depend upon details. Details should depend upon abstractions. The best way to explain this principle is by giving an example. Let’s assume we have a worker class that is a low level class and a Manager class that is a high level class.

If we have to add another class which would be a parent of the Worker class, and the Worker class does similar work to that of the Manager class, it will require lots of changes. They are at times tough to put into practice when it comes to the usage of each individual principle, but making a habit of following these principles will keep your code readable, reusable, and easy to maintain. It is a style of coding by which we can manage various components of the system we are making.

The MVC consists of three main components: Model: The model represents the object in the application. This has the logic of where the data is to be fetched from. This can also have the logic by which the controller can update the view.

In Android, the model is mostly represented by object classes. View: The view consists of the components that can interact with the user and is responsible for how the model is displayed in the application. In Android, the view is mostly represented by the XML where the layouts can be designed. Controller: The controller acts as a mediator between the model and the view. It controls the data flow into the model object and updates the view whenever data changes.

In Android, the controller is mostly represented by the activities and fragments. Therefore, to solve this problem, we can use different design patterns or can implement MVC carefully by taking care of conventions and following proper programming guidelines. The view is an XML file, which contains a TextView, through which the name of the location can be displayed.

The activity, which is the controller, contains a LocationItem. It gets the name of the LocationItem at a specific position in the list and sets it up in the view, which displays it. It separates the view and model by using the presenter. The presenter decides what should be displayed on the view. Model: The model represents the objects in the application. View: The view renders information to users and contains a UI Component.

It does not have any other logic implemented. Presenter: The presenter layer performs the task of the controller and acts as the mediator between the view and model. But unlike the controller, it is not dependent on the view. The view interacts with the presenter for the data to be displayed, and the presenter then takes the data from the model and returns it to the view in a presentable format.

The presenter does not contain any UI components; it just manipulates data from the model and displays it on the view. The interfaces are defined in the presenter class, to which it passes the required data. The connection between the presenter and the view is one to one.

This class interacts with the presenter to provide the list of locations. The loadLocations function is used by the presenter to interact with the model and fetch the list of locations. The model LocationInteractorImpl then uses the listener.

Depending on the functions called by the view, the presenter will communicate with the model and get the responses: public class LocationPresenterImpl implements LocationPresenter, LocationInteractor. This class implements LocationPresenter with which the view communicates with the presenter and the LocationInteractor. OnLoadFinishedListener from which the model communicates with the presenter. When the view calls the loadLocations function of the presenter, the presenter interacts with the model and calls the loadLocations method of the model, indicating that the model is to return the list of locations to be displayed.

The onSuccess and onFailed functions are then called by the model after the list has been fetched successfully or has failed. Then the presenter communicates with the view through the locationLoaded function. The view implements the LocationInterface, by which it gets the responses from the presenter.

It is similar to the MVC model, the only difference being it has two-way data binding with the view and view-model. The changes in the view are being propagated via the view-model, which uses an observer pattern to communicate between the view-model and the model. The view in this case is completely isolated from the model. View-model: The view-model helps in maintaining the state of the view and does changes to the model based on the inputs gained from the view. Many views can be linked to one view-model, which creates a many-to-one relation between the view and a view-model.

Also, a view has information about the view-model but the view-model does not have any information about the view. The view is not responsible for the state of information; rather, that is being managed by the view-model and the view and the model are only reflected via the changes made to the view-model.

In developer’s terminology, one can say that the view-model is the interface between a designer and a coder. An interface connects these two layers, controlling how the outer layers use the inner layers. This kind of code architecture pattern is also known as Onion Architecture because of its different layers, as seen in the following figure: Figure 2.

The outer layer uses the components from the inner layers based upon its needs, meaning the outer layers are dependent on the business logic implementations of the inner layers.

Hence, the dependency points inwards. I will outline the layers in the figure, but focus more on the Clean Architecture core conceptual rules: The Dependency Rule, Abstraction Principle, and communication between the layers: Entities: Entities form the core of your app, which means they define what exactly your app is doing.

Entities are basically objects created to make a data model to hold the business logic and the functionality that would be carried out on it. Some of the entities for an app could be a user entity, a restaurant entity, a place entity, and so on. Use cases: Use cases are in the layer that forms objects using the core entities. The use cases may contain one or more entities based upon their use.

The use cases are a direct object used for forming a business logic. A simple use case could be order, which books a restaurant for a user. Hence, this use case may contain entities such as user and restaurant. Presenter: This layer is the one that presents a use case for its use. This means that it may have a business logic which would be using the entities to give an output data to the UI for rendering.

UI: This is basically the output that you see and is formed by the components such as activities, fragments, views, adapters, and so on. All of these components form the core of the architecture. This could be forming the way the structure should look like when things are being coded.

But a Clean Architecture Pattern is formed only when some major principles are put to best use. The crux of the Clean Architecture is formed by the following principles: Dependency Rule: The Dependency Rule makes up a major chunk of the Clean Architecture pattern. What it says is that the outer layers should depend on the inner layers.

The inner layers should have no idea about the outer layers. But the outer layers can use, or can see, or know about the components of the inner layers, and, based upon their needs, could make use of them. It also means that the outer layers are dependent on the business logic implementations of the inner layers. Hence, the dependency points inwards, as shown in figure 2. The inner layers are abstract because the outer layer does not know anything about the business logic used by the inner layers.

It only knows the key features of what it does. Let us have a simple example to understand this layer. Let us consider the case where a user can increase or decrease the brightness of the device.

The brightness could be changed using a code that has already been written with some business logic that is completely abstract. But the feature that we know is that changing the slider values will increase or decrease the brightness of the device. Communication between the layers: The two layers need some kind of interface between them in order to enable communication between the inner layers and the outer layers.

From the Dependency Principle, we know that the outer layers should communicate with the inner layers, and to communicate with the inner layer, the outer layer needs an interface.

This interface acts as a communication mode between the outer layers with the inner layers. As mentioned by the dependency rule, the dependency points inwards; that is, the outer layers communicate with the inner layers, but there is a small twist here.

The inner layers pass back the result to the outer layer after applying the business logic; that is, the inner layers have an output port. The inner layer will return a use case to the outer layer. The use case to be returned at the output port could be decided by the inner layer.

The inner layer would still not know, what the outer layer will do with it. To better understand the aforementioned principles, check out this code reference as an example to show the Abstraction Principle. Consider the following line of code: ratingTextView.

It seems to be a complex one when you just look at it but would be really simple when split up in to sections. Here restaurant is an object of the entity Restaurant and.

Once you have roughly understood this line of code, let me now explain to you how and where the principles are being applied in this case. The formatRating is a function name that does the work of taking the rating value as input, applying some business logic to it, and giving back a result in the form of a specific rounded value.

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